Today Finland celebrates its centenary. I thought it appropriate to look into some important Finnish basic education reforms made in the course of the past 100 years.
- 1921 was the year when the law for compulsory education came into effect. Previously there had been a four-year ‘Volkschule’, an elementary school variant that didn’t realize equally in the countryside and cities. Some went into school, but many didn’t. But after 1921 each municipality was enforced to found and maintain a ‘Volkschule’, which expanded to a 6-year school. Therefore, basic education started gaining more ground and become available for wider section of people.
- 1948 school meals started becoming universal in the sense that every pupil would receive one school meal free during each school day. However, it took a couple decades until free meal was reality in every school level. Yet, Finland was actually the first country in the world to serve free school meals.
- 1956 was when free dental service expanded to cover most of the pupils (universal on 1972).
- 1971 school week changed from 6 days to 5. No more Saturdays spent in the school.
- 1972 was the year when first primary schools (peruskoulu in Finnish) were introduced in Finland, starting from Lapland and reaching Helsinki region in 1977. Primary schools made basic education essentially equal and further extended basic education: from then it lasted 9 years. Dividing into 6 years of elementary school in which class teachers give most of the teaching. And 3 years of upper level, where subject teachers give all the teaching. Mainly the same primary school institution exists today as well.
- 1974 teacher training had previously been in the hands of ‘teacher seminars’ (sort of boarding schools), but now teacher training was transferred to universities that still train all the teachers.
- 1985 first national basic education curriculum was released. In a sense it was a governmental instrument to guide teaching, but its purpose wasn’t to be identically transformed into a universal curriculum. Rather each municipality was meant to take cues from the national curriculum and based on it draft their own curriculum. From 1985 onwards new national basic education curriculums have been released every 10 years, the latest being from 2014.
Happy independence day Finland!